Added: Derrick Makowski - Date: 17.11.2021 13:07 - Views: 18912 - Clicks: 6055
Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Subway sex offenses are a serious issue in the nations subway sex world, but existing research has failed to explore the offense types or patterns systematically.
Specifically, the authors assessed the reasoning behind the steps taken to prepare for, carry out, and complete harassment and surreptitious recording. The offenses committed in the subway stations around the city of Seoul were analyzed based on the interviews with the subway police, official crime reports, and crime case files.
Drawing from the findings, theoretical and practical implications are discussed. The subway systems around the world, especially in large cities, have developed and expanded with time. The change has often promoted beneficial effects on the surrounding communities by increasing the property values and vitalizing the local economy [ 123 ].
However, subway crimes have also evolved and accompanied such advancement. The victims of the sex offenses committed in public transportation are prone to increased anxiety and fear of crime, decreased self-esteem [ 789 ] as well as avoid particular times or modes of transportation to decrease further victimization [ 1011 ].
Particularly, female passengers who face higher likelihood of becoming a target of sexual violence in public spaces have expressed concern about using public transportation [ 131415 ]. Despite the implication for the safety of passengers, subway sex has been a lack of systematic approach to understand and root out the underlying problems of the subway sex crimes in South Korea.
The measures including installation of closed-circuit television CCTV and creation of women-only passenger cars have been suggested to be fragmented responses with no existing evidence supporting their effectiveness [ 17 ]. Therefore, an in-depth analysis on the nature and the characteristics of the offenses that could lead to viable prevention and response programs is warranted.
The current research investigates the state and characteristics of the sex crimes committed in the subway stations in Seoul, South Korea with the purpose to explore offender behavioral patterns in each step of the crime-commission process and develop a generalizable offending modus operandi by using Crime Script Analysis CSA [ 18 ].
Sexual offense in public spaces is an issue faced by subway sex nations around the world [ 1920 ]. Although researchers have examined sexual harassment in India [ 1521 ], Mexico [ 22 ], and Nepal [ 23 ], the offenses committed in the cars and the facilities built in and around the subway stations, including the entrances and exits, the platforms, and the passages [ 24 ] have not been researched as extensively. Subway stations are replete with criminal opportunities, making them an attractive crime location from the rational choice and routine activities perspectives.
Routine activities theory RAT [ 25 ] suggests that criminal victimization is likely when a motivated offender, a suitable target, and the absence of a capable guardian converge in time and place. The unique nature of the physical environment of the subway i. As stated, the two common sex crimes in the Seoul subway are harassment and surreptitious recording which can be classified into frotteurism and voyeurism, respectively.
The former refers to a paraphilia in which a person seeks sexual pleasure by touching and rubbing against another person, and the latter by observing others that are naked, in the act of undressing, or engaging in sexual activity [ 2728 ]. These non-contact crimes that do not involve penetration have been traditionally considered as nuisance offenses [ 2930 ], and the passing and enactment of relevant laws have lagged behind [ 14 ]. Before the advent and development of digital equipment, sexual harassment constituted the vast majority of subway sex offenses.
However, subway sex has diversified and facilitated the offenses committed with advanced tools [ 14 ]. Particularly, surreptitious recording has become one of the most serious issues in the South Korean subway with the Internet providing a platform to exchange sexually explicit material in cyberspace [ 6 ]. As Table 1 shows, surreptitious recording comprised about thirty-one percent of all reported subway sex offense incidents in out of 1, The actual prevalence of the sex offenses is expected to be higher due to underreporting and unknown victimization [ 3132 ].
Seoul Metro Crime Incidents [ 6 ]. Though additional investigation on female sexual victimization in transit environments is needed [ 33 ], a line of relevant research has emphasized gender differences in travel pattern, victimization, and fear of crime.
For instance, Smith [ 34 ] has argued that the specific needs of women passengers must be taken into by the authorities. It is further subway sex that failing to provide safe travel environments for women and thus restricting their mobility constitutes an infringement of their basic rights [ 19 ] and perpetuates gender inequality in our society [ 37 ].
Furthermore, because female passengers report greater fear of victimization in public transportation compared to men [ 37 ], measures to alleviate the concerns about victimization, including women-only subway passenger cars have emerged in countries such as Japan [ 8 ]. In the cultural context of South Korea, researchers have focused on effective response through enhanced policing strategies e.
To illustrate, modifying the physical environments i.
Crime Prevention Through Environmental De or CPTED [ 40 ] and reducing criminal opportunities by increasing police presence and awareness on the issue of victim blaming have been suggested as ways to prevent and reduce the impact of sex crimes [ 43141 ]. Taking a similar approach by calling for increased visibility and improved surveillance of the spaces in the subway stations, Roh and Kim [ 42 ] have suggested multi-agency partnerships for effective control of the subway crimes. A review of the literature shows that focused analysis of situation-specific offender modus operandi is virtually nonexistent.
Though informing, most studies have referred to the official statistics as the basis for policy recommendations. In order to fill this gap, the current research explores the specific features and strategies of sexual harassment and surreptitious recording in the subway of Seoul, South Korea. Aside from the official statistics, the CSA is conducted based on the interviews with police officers and the crime case files. The rational choice perspective argues that offenders commit crimes based on the perception that the benefits e.
Specific methods and decisions involved in the crime-commission process can also be evaluated from the same viewpoint as the offender behaviors are restricted by available resources, time, and ability [ 4344 ]. These scripts which are acquired through social learning elaborate the procedures involved in the entire crime-commission process [ 4748 ].
Specifically, the decisions made in each step of crime-commission process before, during, and after constitute the modus operandi of an offense [ 47 ]. Though offenders may improvise and adjust their actions if needed in order to successfully carry out the offending [ 184547 ], the crime scripts serve as a template for future offending behavior once learned and undertaken, offering a useful guidance for crime prevention by helping to identify situational crime prevention points [ 4549 ].
Due to its merits, CSA has been employed to understand various forms of crime, including trafficking of sex workers [ 50 ] and drug crimes [ 51 ], brokering in the stolen goods market [ 52 ], subway sex fraud [ 53 ], sexual assaults [ 5455 ], illegal landfill [ 56 ], stealing and selling data online [ 57 ], and voice phishing [ 58 ]. Furthermore, the existing studies have analyzed various types of data such as court manuscript [ 47 ], offender survey [ 59 ] and interview [ 60 ], and web forum conversations [ 57 ], demonstrating the utility and wide applicability of CSA.
Particularly, it has been shown that CSA is an effective tool subway sex an in-depth understanding of offender as well as victim profiling. The current research extends the use of CSA to the subway sex crimes in the cultural context of South Korea. As discussed, the primary purpose of the current research was to explore the modus operandi of sexual harassment and surreptitious recording in the subway stations in Seoul, South Korea.
The authors chose Seoul as the research site for the following subway sex. Additionally, the vast majority of the subway crimes are committed in the Seoul subway sex [ 6 ]. Unlike the studies that solely rely on one source of data mostly offender interview or official statisticsofficial subway crime statistics, crime case files, and interviews with the subway police were analyzed.
By triangulating data, the authors attempted to overcome the limitations of using single method and improve the validity of the findings [ 62 ]. Thirty-five subway crime cases managed by the Seoul Subway Police from January to March were analyzed. The case files included personal information about the offenders and the victims, how the offenses were carried out, and other data on the incidents that the authors used to infer the situational factors of the offenses.
Due to the sensitive nature of the contents, the files were accessed at the agency after obtaining prior approval. In addition, because the crime case files and the official statistics did not reflect the behavioral and psychological aspects of the offenders, in-depth interviews were conducted with the officers.
Nonetheless, the alternative method of consulting the officers were deemed sufficient enough to serve the research purpose. A total of twelve male officers were interviewed. Participants included senior police officers, assistant inspectors, and subway sex who were in their 30s 5 or 40s 7.
The selection criteria included more than one year of experience as a subway police officer as well as investigation or apprehension of more than ten sex offenders. Two officers had arrested at least sex offenders and most of the others had apprehended 30 or more offenders, providing sufficient information to help answer the research questions. The semi-structured interviewees were conducted from September to November,with each lasting from forty to seventy minutes. The interviews began with open-ended questions i. Moreover, the interview findings and the information from the criminal case files were cross-checked.
The official statistics published by the KNPA [ 6 ] were also examined for a breakdown of the offenses by time. Collected data were analyzed by using content analysis which allowed the authors to identify the themes related to the research questions and explore the relationships between them [ 63 ]. In preparation of sexual harassment, the offenders searched for a crowded passenger car, waited for the rush hour, selected an exit station, and looked for a suitable target. Subway sex, sexual harassment occurred in a crowded car subway sex which the passenger mobility was limited to a certain extent, increasing unintended and unwanted physical contacts.
The offenders used this to their advantage and often targeted a stationary person who was easy to examine, approach, and harass. The officers informed that the offenders preferred busy hours. The official data Figure 1 validated the interview findings. of Sexual Offense Occurrences by Time in [ 6 ]. The interviewees also explained that the morning commute offered numerous opportunities and was the most favored time, followed by the after-work hours.
Moreover, the harassers planned for an exit after committing the crimes. They were found to take advantage of the moving trains and large s of passengers that boarded and disembarked them repeatedly between stations. Taking this pattern intothe offenders calculated the timing of escape and walked out of the car using the shortest routes promptly after the doors opened. As for target selection, there were some cases in which the harassers searched for a target to whom they were sexually attracted. One offender stalked a particular woman by appearing at the same station and waiting for the same car for around two months.Subway sex
email: [email protected] - phone:(769) 990-9659 x 7619